Empirical Science has been developed through three paradigms: Observational Science → Theoretical Science → Computational Science. Now it is in the fourth paradigm called the Data-centric Science era.
In the field of global environment, including meteorology, observation, and theory have become the two pillars in the same way as other empirical science fields, and knowledge has been deepened.
The age of numerical simulation has come in line with computer evolution since 2000, and many numerical models that handle weather and runoff have been developed, and numerical calculation techniques for rainfall, flooding, and inundation have been established. After that, data assimilation appeared as a method to optimally connect numerical models and actual data, remarkably advancing numerical weather forecasting. However, due to the intensification of weather and water disasters lead by the influence of climate change, we need not only a society in which the global environment can be predicted but also a society in which damage can be reduced through the efficient use of prediction.
In this project, the challenge is to create a society that makes efficient use of predictions (A World Beyond Predictions), such as control of weather/disasters and the design of cost-effective observation networks, in addition to the conventional "deepening of environmental prediction technology."
For example, In the Moonshot R&D program of the Cabinet Office, we are developing quantifying technologies for “cost of weather control” and “avoidable damage by the weather control” to enable discussions on a bottleneck for decision-making: the way to maximize the effect of control. We are working with a collaborative team of meteorology, mathematics, IT, and industry to control typhoons and torrential rain that are becoming more severe and to realize a society safe from the threat of extreme winds and rains.
In general, we need to conduct research into ethical, legal, and social issues when new technology that can be controlled and designed becomes available before being implemented in society. In this project, we promote research on disaster prediction and control based on a scientific and engineering approach, as well as interdisciplinary research on humanities and social sciences that deals with ethical, legal, and social issues.